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t:TN 

L SURVEY OF GEORGIA 



:ALLIE. STATE GEOLOGIST 



HAND-BOOK 

MINERAL RESOURCES 

OF 

GEORGIA 




s. w. MCCALLIE 

STATE GEOLOGIST 



ATLANTA; GA. 

1918 



EXCHANGE 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA 

S. W. McCALLIE, STATE GEOLOGIST 



HAND-BOOK 

MINERAL RESOURCES 

OF 

GEORGIA 



REVISED EDITION 



S. W. MCCALLIE 

STATE GEOLOGIST 



ATLANTA. GA. 

1918 

FOOTE & DAVIES CO., ATLANTA 



EXCHANGE 



THE ADVISORY BOARD 

OF THE 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
GEORGIA 

IN THE YEAR 1918 



(EX-OFFICIO) 

His Excellency HUGH M. DORSEY, Governor oi Georgia 
PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD 

HON. PHILIP COOK Secretary oi State 

HON. W. J. SPEER ---..- - State Treasurer 
HON. W. A. WRIGHT - - - - Comptroller-General 
HON. CLIFFORD WALKER - - Attorney-General 
HON. J. J. BROWN - - Commissioner of Agriculture 
HON. M. L. BRITTAIN Commissioner oi Public Schools 



393285 



MINERAL RESOURCES 

OF 

GEORGIA 



The mineral resources of Georgia are 
both varied and extensive. The State 
is producing at present 34 different kinds 
of minerals in commercial quantities. 
This great diversity of mineral resources 
is accounted for in a large measure by 
the great diversity in the geological for- 
mations. 

Following the description of each indi- 
vidual mineral here given will be found 
references to publications issued by the 
State Geological Survey, in which the 
minerals are more fully discussed. Any 
of these publications can be obtained 
from the State Geologist upon payment 
of postage. 

ASBESTOS 

Asbestos is a fibrous mineral often re- 
sembling petrified wood. The asbestos 
deposits of Georgia are confined chiefly 
to the Piedmont Plateau, where they are 
found associated with dark colored, igne- 
ous rocks. There are two varieties of as- 
bestos, the chrysotile and the amphibole, 



8 Gi -O,,P<, ii AT. SURVEY Or GEORGIA. 

The latter variety is extensively mined 
in Habersham and White counties, near 
Nacoochee, this State. The White County 
mines here referred to have been the 
chief producers of asbestos in this coun- 
try for several years. The finer varieties 
of asbestos are spun and woven into fire- 
proof cloth. It is a non-conductor of heat 
and electricity, and therefore is used for 
electrical insulation, steam pipe, boiler 
coverings, etc. It is also used in the 
manufacture of fire-proof paint, various 
building materials, such as lumber, shin- 
gles and plaster. 

References on Asbestos: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Go,. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Hopkins, Oliver B., Asbestos, Talc, and Soap- 
stone Deposits of Georgia. Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 29, 1914, 319 pp. 

BARYTES 

This mineral, often called heavy spar, 
from its high specific gravity, is a com- 
mon gangue mineral of lead, zinc, copper, 
etc. It likewise occurs as distinct veins 
and as irregular ore bodies in limestones, 
sandstones, and in residual clays. The 
Georgia barytes deposits, which have so 
far been worked in a commercial way, 
are located near Emerson, Bartow 
County, and at Eton. Murray County. The 
mineral is largely used as a substitute 
for white lead. It is used also in the 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 9 

manufacture of paper, rubber, oilcloths, 
paper collars, and barium salts, as well 
as for refining sugar, glazing pottery, and 
for enameling iron. 

Georgia last year produced about two- 
thirds of the barytes mined in the United 
States, all of which came from the Car- 
tersville district. 

References on Barytes: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. GeoL Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Hull. J. P. D.. Barytes Deposits of Georgia: 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 36, in preparation. 




BARYTES MINING. BARTOW COUNTY. 
BAUXITE 

The first bauxite found in America was 
discovered near Hermitage, Floyd Coun- 



10 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

ty, in 1887. Later, deposits were found 
in Polk, Bartow, Gordon, Chattooga and 
Walker counties, and between 1907 and 
1915 deposits were found in the vicinity 
of Mclntyre, Wilkinson County, near An- 
dersonville, Sumter County, and also near 
Warm Springs, Meriwether County. The 
bauxites of northwest Georgia are asso- 
ciated with Cambrian rocks, while those 
of central Georgia occur associated with 
the white Cretaceous kaolins. Since 1888 
a high percentage of the bauxite mined in 




BAUXITE MINE, SUMTER COUNTY. 

this country has been obtained from Ar- 
kansas, Georgia and Alabama. 

Bauxite is a hydroxide of alumina. The 
ore occurs both in the form of large 
pockets and as beds, and is mined in the 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 11 

same manner as clay. The Georgia 
bauxites are used largely in the manu- 
facture of alum and the metal aluminum. 
Bauxite is also employed in making fire- 
brick and alundum, an artificial abrasive. 

References on Bauxite: 

Watson, Thos. L., Bauxite D'eposits of Geor- 
gia : 'Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 11, 1904, 
169 pp. 

Veatch, Otto, Clay Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 18, 1909, Appen- 
dix D. 

Shearer, H. K., Bauxite and Fullers Earth 
Deposits ot the Coastal Plain of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 31, 1917, 340 pp. 

CEMENTS 

Both natural and Portland cements are 
made in Georgia. Natural cement plants 
are located at Cement, Bartow County 
and at Rossville, Walker County, while 
extensive Portland cement plants are op- 
erated at Rockmart, Polk County. The 
raw materials for the manufacture of 
Portland cement, consisting of lime- 
stones and shales, are abundant and 
pretty generally distributed throughout 
northwest Georgia. Both Portland and 
natural cements are largely used for 
structural purposes, and as these uses 
are so rapidly increasing it might be 
said that we are now entering the ce- 
ment age of structural material. 



12 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 
References on Cements: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Maynard, T. Poole. Limestones and Cement 
Materials of North Georgia: Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 27, 1912, 296 pp. 

Brantly, J. E., Limestone and Marls of the 
Coastal Plain of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Sur- 
vey No. 21, 1916, 300 pp. 




PORTLAND CEMENT PLANT, POLK COUNTY. 
CHLORITE 

Chlorite is a magnesian aluminum sili- 
cate composed of greenish or grey mica- 
like scales. It has a soapy feel and for 
this reason it is often mistaken for talc 
or soapstone. 

This material occurs in commercial 
quantities five miles west of Canton, 
Cherokee County. In the last two or 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 13 

three years this chlorite deposit has been 
extensively mined and hauled to Canton, 
where it is ground and prepared for 
markets. It is said to be used for foun- 
dry facings, coating tarred roof paper, 
in the manufacture of electrical insula- 
tors, for lubricating purposes, etc. 

Reference on Chlorite: 

Hopkins, p. B., Asbestos, Talc and Soap- 
stone Deposits of Georgia : null. Oa. Geol. 
Survey A'o. _M), 11)14, 319 pp. 

CHROMITE 

Only two counties in Georgia, namely, 
Towns and Troup, as far as known at 
present, have chromite in apparently 
commercial quantity. The deposit in 
Towns County is located two miles due 
west of Hiawassee, on lot 92; while the 
deposit in Troup County is near Louise. 
From the latter locality a limited amount 
of ore has recently been shipped. The 
ore in both localities is associated with 
ferro-magnesian rock and is generally 
found in the form of boulders in residual 
clays. 

Chromite is used in the manufacture 
of hard chrome steel and chrome brick, 
which stand intense heat. It is also used 
in calico printing and electric batteries 
as well as a source of various chromium 
compounds such as potassium bi-chrom- 
ate. 



14 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 
Reference on Chromite: 

Hopkins, O. B., Asbestos, Talc and Soap- 
stone Deposits of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 29, 1914, 319 pp. 

CLAYS 

The clays of Georgia, which may be 
classed as one of our inexhaustible min- 
eral resources, present a great variety. 
In the southern part of the State occur 
the Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary 
clays. The great thickness of these beds 
and the purity of the clays themselves 
are probably nowhere else to be dupli- 
cated in this country. These clays, which 
are now being extensively mined, are 
used largely for the manufacture of high- 
grade china, for paper filler, and for fire- 
brick, terra cotta, etc. Scarcely less im- 
portant are the alluvial and residual 
clays of the Piedmont Plateau and north- 
west Georgia, which have extensive use 
in the manufacture of common building 
brick. The value of the clay products 
of Georgia now exceeds that of any other 
mineral product of the State. 

References on Clays: 

Ladd, Geo. E., The Clay Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 6-A, 1898, 204 pp. 

Veatch, Otto, Clay Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 18, 1909, 453 pp. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 15 




- 



KAOLIN PLANT, TWIGGS COUNTY. 
COAL 

The coal measures of Georgia are con- 
fined to Sand, Lookout and Pigeon moun- 
tains, in Bade, Walker and Chattooga 
counties. They form a part of the north- 
ern extension of the Coosa and the War- 
rior coal fields of Alabama. The Durham 
Coal and Coke Company's mine and the 
mine of the Vulcan Coal Company, both 
located on Lookout Mountain, are the 
only mines now in operation in the State. 
The coal from these mines is semi-bitum- 
inous, has a high heating value, and is 
largely used for steam and coking pur- 
poses. The total coal area of the State 
is approximately 170 square miles, which 
area is estimated to have had originally 
933,000,000 short tons of coal. About 12,- 
000,000 tons of coal have been mined up 



16 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

to the present, leaving still in the ground 
a total of 921,000,000 tons, enough to last 
the State, at our present rate of consump- 
tion, for more than 200 years. 

Reference on Coal: 

McCallie, S. W., Coal Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey ~Vo. 12, 1904, 121 pp. 




COKE OVENS. WALKER COUNTY. 
COPPER 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 17 

posits have been worked at only one 
place, namely, the Canton copper mine, 
one mile south of Canton. The Waldrop 
copper mine in Haralson County is lo- 
cated about three miles northwest of 
Draketown, near the Haralson-Polk county 
line. In addition to the deposits here 
named, copper is also known to occur 
in Lincoln, Lumpkin and Fulton coun- 
ties. The copper deposits of Fannin, 
Cherokee and Haralson counties are as- 
sociated with Cambrian rocks, while 
those in Lumpkin, Fulton and Lincoln 
counties occur in older rocks, probably 
Archaean. 

References on Copper: 

McCallie, S. W.. Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Shearer, H. K. and Hull, J. P. D., A Pre- 
liminary Report on a Part of the Pyrite De- 
posits of Georgia. Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 
33, in preparation. 

CORUNDUM 

Corundum is an aluminum oxide. It is 
next to the diamond in hardness. There 
are three varieties of this mineral: sap- 
phire, corundum and emery. The purer 
kinds of fine colors, transparent or 
translucent, used for gems, are known 
as sapphires and rubies; the dull colors, 
not transparent, are called corundum; 
while the black or grayish black variety, 
intimately mixed with oxide of iron, 



18 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

either magnetite or hematite, is known as 
emery. All varieties of corundum have 
been found in Georgia, with the excep- 
tion of emery. The principal variety is 
the non-transparent variety. A few gems 
of the variety sapphire have been found 
near Hiawassee, Towns County. These 
were small, prismatic crystals of ruby 
color, but somewhat cloudy. A few gems 
of sapphire are said to have been found 
at the Laurel Creek mine in Rabun 
County. Corundum is known to occur in 
many counties in north Georgia. The 
chief corundum output has come from 
the Laurel Creek mine, located in the 
extreme northeastern part of Rabun 
County. 

From 1880 until 1892, Georgia was one 
of the chief corundum producing states 
in the Union. In recent years, the mines 
have been idle, due, chiefly, to the low 
price of corundum. In addition to gem 
material, corundum has an extensive use 
as an abrasive. 

Reference on Corundum: 

King, Francis P.. Corundum Deposits of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 2, 1894, 
133 pp. 

FELDSPAR 

The feldspars are widely distributed 
throughout the Piedmont and Appalach- 
ian areas of Georgia, where they occur in 
dikes associated with mica and quartz. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 19 

The only place where feldspar has so 
far been mined in any quantity is near 
Hiram in Paulding County. A limited 
amount has also been mined in White 
and Rabun counties. The Georgia feld- 
spars so far put on the market are potash 
feldspars and have been used for fer- 
tilizer purposes after being chemically 
treated to make the potash soluble. 

Feldspar is used extensively as an in- 
gredient in the raw mix of china por- 
celain, whitewash, glazes, and enamels. 
It is also used as an ingredient in some 
polishing scouring soaps; in the manufac- 
ture of certain kinds of glass, for pot- 
tery, grits, etc. 

Furthermore, it has recently been used 
to a limited extent as a source of potash. 

Reference on Feldspar: 

Galpin, S. L., Feldspar and Mica Deposits 
of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 30, 
1915, 129 pp. 

FLUORSPAR 

Fluorspar is used largely as a flux in 
smelting ore, in the manufacture of opal- 
escent glass, and hydrofluoric acid. The 
mineral has a variety of colors, the most 
common being purple and green. 

Fine specimens of this mineral, having 
a beautiful greenish color, have recently 
been found in the vicinity of Ranger, 
Gordon county. At Graysville, in Chat- 
tooga County, the mineral in the form 



20 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

of cubic crystals with a violet color, oc- 
curs associated with limestone. 

FULLERS EARTH 

The best known deposits of fullers 
earth occur near Dry Branch, Twiggs 
County, and in the vicinity of Attapul- 
gus, Decatur County, where they have 
been worked for some years. Extensive 
deposits also occur in Bibb, Columbia 




FULLERS EARTH PLANT, TWIGGS COUNTY. 

and other counties near the Fall Line. 
The deposits of Twiggs County are now 
being worked by the General Reduction 
Company. Georgia stands second in the 
production of fullers earth, being ex- 
ceeded only by Florida. 

Fullers earth is a clay-like material of 
various colors. It differs from common 



MINERAL Rt SOURCES OF GEOHGIA. 21 

clay in being more porous, carrying a 
high percentage of silica as compared 
with the alumina and in having little or 
no plasticity. Fullers earth, so-called on 
account of it being first used in fulling 
cloth, is now largely employed in decolor- 
izing and clarifying oils and fats. Be- 
sides the use here given, it has also a 
limited application in the preparation 
of certain medicines and in the manu- 
facture of soap, as well as an absorbent. 

References on Fullers Earth. 

Veatch, Otto, Clay Deposits of Georgia : 
Hull. Ga. Geol. Surrey A T o. 18. 1900, 433 pp. 

Shearer, H. K., Bauxite and Fullers Earth of 
the Coastal Plain of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 31, 1917, 340 pp. 

GOLD. 

Gold has been mined in Georgia for 
more than three-quarters of a century. 
Previous to the discovery of gold in Cali- 
fornia, the mines of Georgia furnished 
the greater part of the gold produced in 
the United States. As early as 1838, the 
output of the mines of the State had be- 
come so important that the United States 
government found it necessary to estab- 
lish a miritat Dahlonega. The gold de- 
posits of Georgia belong to the Appalach- 
ian gold fields, an auriferous belt extend- 
ing from Nova Scotia to Alabama. In 
Georgia, the gold occurs in a number of 
narrow, parallel belts, having a north- 
east-southwest trend. The most impor- 



22 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 




GOLD MINING PLANT, HARALSON COUNTY. 

tant of these are the Dahlonega and Hall 
county belts. Another belt including some 
very important mines traverses Lincoln, 
Columbia, McDuffie and Warren counties, 
in the eastern part of the State. The in- 
dividual auriferous belts are usually 
made up of a great number of veins or 
ore bodies running parallel to each other. 
The veins vary in thickness from a frac- 
tion of an inch to several feet or rods, 
and often continue without interruption 
for long distances. 

References on Gold: 

Yeates, W. S., McCallie, S. W., King, F. P., 
Gold Deposits of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Sur- 
vey No. 4-A, 1896, 542 pp. 

Jones, S. Percy, Gold Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 19, 1909, 283 pp. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 23 

GRANITES 

The granites of Georgia, together with 
the gneisses, constitute the most exten- 
sive and one of the most important 
building and monumental stones in the 
State. They occur in inexhaustible quan- 
tities and are widely distributed through- 
out the Piedmont Plateau. One of the 
most interesting and one of the largest 
barren granite masses in the country is 
that of Stone Mountain, located only a 
few miles northeast of Atlanta. This 
mountain has long been the seat of a 
very important granite industry. The 
stone obtained from these quarries is a 
light colored muscovite granite possess- 
ing remarkable strength, and is quite 
free from all chemical and physical de- 
fects. The stone has extensive use as 
a building material and is also largely em- 
ployed in street improvement. There is 
probably no granite in the South more 
widely known and more generally used 
than that furnished by the Stone Moun- 
tain quarries. Another granite, or rather 
a granite-gneiss, of almost as much 
economic importance as the Stone Moun- 
tain granite, is the Lithonia granite. 
This stone covers a considerable area 
in the eastern part of DeKalb and the 
contiguous parts of Rockdale and Gwin- 
nett counties. The Lithonia quarries are 
very extensive and furnish large quanti- 
ties of stone for street improvements as 



24 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

well as for concrete and general building 
purposes. 

In addition to the granites here named, 
there are other granites of superior qual- 
ity used for monumental stone. Some of 
the granites of this character are those 
obtained from the Elberton, the Oglesby, 
the Lexington and the Meriwether quar- 
ries. These monumental granites have 
but few equals, if any superiors, in the 
United States as a monumental stone. 
At present, Georgia stands seventh *n the 
rank of the production of granite in i" 
country, being exceeded only by Verm; _it, 
Massachusetts, Maine, Colorado, Wiscon- 
sin and Maryland. 

Reference on Granites: 

Watson, Thos. L., Granites and Gneisses of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 9-A, 
1902, 367 pp. 

GRAPHITE 

Both amorphous and crystalline varie- 
ties of this mineral occur in Georgia. 
The amorphous variety is quite abundant 
in the neighborhood of Emerson, Bartow 
County, where it has been mined on a 
more or less extensive scale. Fine sam- 
ples of crystalline graphite have been 
found in Bartow, Pickens, Elbert, Hall, 
Madison, Douglas, Troup and Cobb coun- 
ties. All of the graphite material so far 
mined in Georgia has been used as a 
filler for commercial fertilizers. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 25 

Reference on Graphite: 

McCallio, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : BuU. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

IRON ORES 

Iron ores occur in Georgia in large 
quantities. The most common ores are 
the brown ores, or limonites, and the fos- 
sil ores, or hematites. Magnetite also oc- 
curs. The brown iron ores are most 
abundant in Polk, Bartow and Floyd 
counties, but workable deposits are also 
to be found in nearly every county in the 
northwestern part of the State. These 
ores are confined chiefly to two geological 
horizons, viz., the Weisner quartzite and 
Knox dolomite. The ores associated with 
the Weisner quartzite sometimes occur 
in ill-defined veins, but more generally 
they are found in the form of pockets or 
irregular deposits in the residual clays. 
The brown iron ores of the Knox dolo- 
mite series occur chiefly in the form of 
pockets or irregular deposits in the resid- 
ual clays. The deposits are quite varia- 
ble in size. Some of the individual de- 
posits in the vicinity of Cedartown have 
been worked on an extensive scale for 
more than ten years without exhausting 
the supply. 

The red, or fossil, iron ores of Georgia 
are confined to Bade, Walker, Chattooga 
and Catoosa counties. These ores occur 
in the Red Mountain iron ore bearing 



26 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

series, which is so well developed near 
Birmingham. The ores occur in continu- 
ous beds varying from a few inches to 
several feet in thickness. Some idea may 
be had as to the abundance of the red 
fossil iron ores of Georgia when it is 
stated that the aggregate length of the 
outcroppings of the beds, which average 
more than two feet in thickness, is ap- 
proximately 175 miles, and that in many 
places the ore can be economically mined 
to the depth of several hundred feet. 

References on Iron Ores: 

McCallie, S. W., Iron Ores of Polk, Bartow 
and Floyd counties. Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 10-A, 1900, 190 pp. 

Fossil Iron Ores of Georgia : 

Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 17, 1908, 199 pp. 




IRON ORE MINING. POLK COUNTY. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 27 

LIMESTONES 

Cambrian, Silurian and Carboniferous 
limestone, suitable for lime, fluxing and 
building materials, exist in great abun- 
dance in northwest Georgia. The most 
extensive of these calcareous formations 
is the Knox dolomite, a magnesian lime- 
stone of great thickness. This formation 
furnishes much of the lime used in the 
State, as well as a large amount of stone 
for concrete and for general building pur- 
poses. Other calcareous formations of 
scarcely less commercial importance are 
the Bangor and the Chickamauga lime- 




LIMESTONE CRUSHING PLANT, BARTOW COUNTY. 

stones. In addition to these occurrences, 
extensive beds suitable for lime and for 
agricultural purposes occur in the Creta- 
ceous and Tertiary formations of south 
Georgia. 



28 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 
References on Limestones: 

McCallie, S. W.. Roads and Road-Building 
Materials of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey 
No. 8, 1901, 264 pp. 

Maynard T. Poole, Limestone and Cement 
Materials of North Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. 
Survey No. 27, 1912, 296 i>i>. 

Brantly. J. E., Limestones and Marls of the 
Coastal Plain of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Sur- 
vey No. 21, 1916, 300 pp. 

MANGANESE 

The manganese ores, like the brown 
iron ores, are confined chiefly to Bartow, 
Floyd and Polk counties. The largest 
and most productive deposits are found 
in the vicinity of Cartersville, where the 
ores occur as irregular deposits in the 
residual clays derived from the Beaver 
limestone and the Weisner quartzite. The 
manganese deposits of Georgia have been 
worked almost continuously for many 
years. During their early workings the 
ores were shipped to England, but in the 
last few years they have found a ready 
market in this country, where they have 
been used in the manufacture of steel and 
for bleaching powder. 

References on Manganese: 

Watson, Thos. L., Manganese Deposits of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 14, 1908, 
195 pp. 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 29 

MARBLES 

Previous to 1884, the marbles of Geor- 
gia were practically unknown as building 
and ornamental stones, but at present 
the output of the quarries exceeds that of 
any State in the Union with the exception 
of Vermont. The most valuable marbles 
of Georgia are those of Pickens, Chero- 




GEORGIA MARBLE QUARRIES, PICKENS COUNTY. 

kee, Gilmer and Fannin counties. These 
marbles occur in a narrow belt which 
runs parallel to the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad, from near Ball Ground, 
Cherokee County, to the Georgia-North 
Carolina State line, a distance of more 
than 60 miles. The main marble Indus- 



30 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

try of the State is located in the vicinity 
of Tate, Pickens County, where the de- 
posit attains its greatest thickness. The 
Pickens County marble usually has a 
coarse texture, but admits of a very fine 
polish and is admirably suited both for 
building and monumental purposes. In 
color, the stone varies from white to al- 
most black. A flesh-colored variety is 
also found. The physical and chemical 
properties, as shown by the numerous 
tests made by the State Geological Sur- 
vey, demonstrate that its durability 
equals or exceeds that of any other mar- 
ble now being put upon the market. 

At present a number of different mar- 
ble quarries, having an aggregate annual 
output of several hundred thousand cubic 
feet of stone, are being operated in Pick- 
ens County. The product of the quarries 
is shipped to nearly every State in the 
Union, where it is used in the construc- 
tion and decoration of some of the most 
costly buildings. The State capitols of 
Minnesota and Rhode Island; the United 
States Government building, Boston; St. 
Luke's Hospital, New York; the Corcoran 
Art Gallery, Washington; and the Field 
Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 
111., with numerous other handsome build- 
ings throughout the United States, are 
constructed wholly or in part of the 
Georgia marble. There is probably no 
building stone in this country, in recent 
years, which has gained such a wide- 
spread use and given such universal sat- 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 31 

isfaction as the Georgia marble. The 
growth of the use of the stone has also 
been equally as phenomenal in monu- 
mental work. 

Reference on Marble: 

McCallie, S. W., Marbles of Georgia: Bull, 
Ga. Geol. Survey No. 1 Revised, 1907, 126 pp. 

MARLS 

Marls of good quality are found in the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary formations of 
south Georgia. There is probably no 
county in the southern part of the State 
which does not possess marl deposits of 
more or less agricultural value. In ad- 
dition to the common calcareous or shell 
marl, green sand marls also occur. 
Analyses of these green sands show that 
they carry a considerable amount of 
phosphoric acid and potash, two of the 
most important plant foods. The use of 
the Georgia marls as a natural fertilizer 
has so far been quite limited, but in all 
cases where they have been given a fair 
test the result has been entirely satis- 
factory. 

References on Marls: 

McCallie. S. W., Phosphates and Marls of 
Georgia : Bull. Oa. Geol. Survey No. 5-A, 1896, 
98 pp. 

Brantly, J. E., Limestones and Marls of the 
Coastal Plain of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Sur- 
vey No. 21, 1916, 300 pp. 



32 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY or GEORGIA. 
MICA 

Mica is widely distributed throughout 
the Piedmont Plateau. It has been work- 
ed to a limited extent in Upson, Cherokee, 
Lumpkin, Union, Hall and Rabun coun- 
ties. Some of the most promising pros- 
pects in Cherokee County are in the 
vicinity of Holly Springs and Toonigh, 
and in the Hickory Plats district about 
ten miles southeast of Canton. The 
Lumpkin and Union County deposits, as 
so far developed, occur near the Lumpkin- 
Union county line. Upson County is now 
an active producer as well as Meriwether 
County. Mica has been mined in Rabun 
County at the Kell Mica Mine, 10 miles 
east of Clayton, and in Hall County, near 
Gainesville. In addition to these locali- 
ties, good mica prospects are found in a 
large number of other counties in the 
Piedmont Plateau. 

Mica has a great variety of uses, but 
at present the greater part of the produc- 
tion is consumed in the electrical indus- 
try. Ground mica is largely used in wall 
paper and roofing as well as a lubricant. 

References on Mica: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Galpin, S. L., Feldspar and Mica Deposits 
of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 30, 
1915, 190 pp. 






MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 33 
OCHER 



The ocher mines of Georgia produce 
more than one-half the yellow ocher out- 
put of the United States. These mines 
are located near Cartersville, Bartow 
County. The deposits are confined to a 
narrow belt about eight miles in length 
and less than two miles in width. The 
most extensive workings are those of 
the Georgia-Peruvian Ocher Company, 
situated on the left bank of the Etowah 
River, two and one-fourth miles east of 
Cartersville. Ocher mining in the Car- 




OCHER PLANT, BARTOW COUNTY. 

tersville district had its beginning in 
1877. In 1890, the Georgia-Peruvian 
Ocher Company began operations on an 
extensive scale, and, later, three other 
large ocher plants were put in operation. 



34 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

The total maximum output of these four 
plants is estimated at about 1,000 tons 
per annum. 

The principal use made of the yellow 
ocher mined in Bartow County, up to the 
present time, is in the manufacture of 
linoleums and oilcloths. The important 
markets are England and Scotland. It 
is also used to a limited extent in the 
manufacture of paints. 

Reference on Ocher: 

Watson, Thos. L., Ocher Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 13, 1906, 81 pp. 

PRECIOUS STONES 

A large variety of minerals suitable for 
gems and other ornamental objects and 
cabinet specimens has been found in the 
State. No systematic mining for gems, 
however, has been carried on, and the 
finds have been accidental, or incidental 
to gold, corundum and other mining. 
Nearly all of these minerals are found in 
the Piedmont Plateau and the mountain- 
ous section of the northeastern part of 
the State. The most important gem 
stones heretofore noted as occurring in 
the State are as follows: Diamond, ruby, 
amethyst, rose quartz, rutilated quartz, 
smoky quartz, agate, jasper, opal, beryl, 
garnet, rutile, moonstone. 

Reference on Precious Stones: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 35 
POTASH-BEARING SLATES 

Slates containing 7 to 10 per cent, pot- 
ash occur north of Cartersville, Bartow 
County, in a belt 15 miles long and 1 to 
4 miles wide. The best exposures are 
near White, on the L. & N. Railway, 
where a thickness of several hundred 
feet of such material may be worked by 
open-cut methods. It is believed that 
these slates are exceptionally fine raw 
material for the extraction of potash for 
fertilizer and other purposes. 

Some of the slate has also the essen- 
tial physical and chemical properties of 
a first-class roofing slate. 

Reference on Slate: 

Shearer, H. K., Slate Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Go,. Oeol. Survey No. 35, in preparation. 

PYRITE 



36 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

near Hiram, Paulding County; the Mari 
etta mine near Marietta, Cobb County 
the Sulphur Mining & Railroad Company 
mine in Douglas County, and the Waldro; 
mine near Draketown, Haralson County 
Other promising deposits, which have 
been worked in the past or rather exten- 




PYRITE PLANT, CHEROKEE COUNTY. 

sively explored are Reeds Mountain, 
near Bremen, Haralson County; the 
Southern Star mine, four miles west of 
Woodstock, Cherokee County; the Swift 
mine near Draketown, Haralson County; 
the Swift or Blake mine at Creighton, 
Cherokee County; the Canton Copper 
mine, Cherokee County; and the Mam- 
moth mine near Hiram, Paulding County. 
The copper ore from Mine No. 20, Fannin 
County, is also a source of sulphuric 
acid. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 37 
References on Pyrite: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. GeoL Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Shearer. H. K., and Hull, J. P. D., A Pre- 
liminary Report on a Part of the Pyrite De- 
posits of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 
-'{.">. in preparation. 

ROAD MATERIALS 

The road-building materials of Geor- 
gia are quite abundant and pretty evenly 
distributed throughout the State. Nearly 
all the varieties of stone used in highway 
construction occur in large quantities in 
many sections. It is questionable 
whether any State in the Union possesses 
a greater variety of road-building mate- 
rials than the State of Georgia. 

References on Road Materials: 

McCallie, S. W.. Roads and Road-Building 
Materials of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey 
No. 8, 1901, 264 pp. 

McCallie, S. W., Public Roads of Georgia, 
Second Report : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 24, 
1910, 36 pp. 

McCallie. S. W., Public Roads of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. GeoL Survey No. 28, 1912, 12 pp. 

SAND AND GRAVEL 

Sand and gravel are both widely dis- 
tributed throughout the State. They are 
especially abundant in the northern part 
of the Coastal Plain. Enormous deposits 
of sand are to be seen near Howard, on 



38 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

the Central of Georgia Railway, in Taylc 
County; at Junction City, in Talbot Cour 
ty; on Bull Creek, three miles east 
Columbus; on the west side of the Flin 
River, at Bainbridge; on the Flint River 
just opposite Albany; on the east bank 
Little Ogeechee River, one and one-half 
miles northeast of Lumber City; and on 
the east bank of the Oconee River at Dub- 
lin. In addition to these various locali- 
ties there are numerous other localities 
throughout the Coastal Plain where more 
or less extensive deposits of sand and 
gravel are to be found. In the Piedmont 
Plateau and the Appalachian Valley re- 
gion, the sands and gravels are mostly 
found along the streams. 

References on Sand and Gravel: 

McCallie, S. W., Roads and Road-Building 
Materials of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey 
No. 8, 1901, 264 pp. 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

SERICITE 

Sericite of exceptional purity occurs in 
Pickens County only a short distance 
west of Jasper, where it is found in beds 
from a few inches to six feet or more 
in thickness, interlaminated with quartz 
schist. 

The mineral is a variety of mica made 
up of small elongated silver-colored 
shreds. It resembles talc very closely, in 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 39 

physical properties, and is often used for 
the same purposes. 

The Pickens County sericite has re- 
cently attracted considerable attention as 
a raw material for the extraction of pot- 
ash. Two different companies are now 
mining this material with a view of ex- 
tracting the potash for fertilizer pur- 
poses. The results of the tests so far 
worked out by the companies here re- 
ferred to, have not yet been made public. 
However, they appear to be very san- 
guine of a financial success. 

References on Sericite: 

Hopkins, O. B., Asbestos. Talc and Soapstone 
Deposits of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey 
No. 29, 1914, 319 pp. 

Galpin, S. L., Feldspar and Mica Deposits of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 30, 1915, 
192 pp. 

SERPENTINE 

Serpentine is a hydrous silicate of mag- 
nesia, carrying, usually, more or less im- 
purities. The only deposit of serpentine, 
so far worked in Georgia, occurs at the 
Verde Antique Marble Quarry in Chero- 
kee County, about two miles southwest 
of Holly Springs. The stone is used al- 
most exclusively for interior finish and 
decorations. It is especially adapted for 
stairways, corridors, mantels and pedes- 
tals for statuary. 



40 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 
Reference on Serpentine: 

McCallie, S. W., Marbles of Georgia : Bui 
Go,. Geol. Survey No. 1, Revised, 1907, 126 pp 

SLATE 

Slate is found in Georgia in Bartow am 
Polk counties. The largest area of slat 
in Polk County, extends from about thre 
miles south of Cartersville to about fiv 
miles south of Rockmart. Another bel 
of slate of the same age occurs south o 
Cedartown. The Polk County slate is o 
a dark blue to black color. It has a fin 
texture and smooth cleavage and but few 
defects. Another very promising slate 
belt is found in northern Bartow, Gordon 
and Murray counties. This slate has a 
greenish color and possesses all of the 
physical and chemical qualities of a 
first-class roofing slate. 

References on Slate: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Shearer, H. K., Slate Deposits of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 35 in preparation. 

TALC AND SOAPSTONE 

Talc is a white, gray or greenish soft 
mineral with a greasy feel. It is a sili- 
cate of magnesia. Soapstone is usually 
considered an impure form of talc. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 41 

Talc has been found at a large number 
of localities in the northern part of the 
State, but commercial deposits have been 
developed at only a few places. Soap- 
stone is more widely distributed. Pour 
companies are at present producing talc 
in Georgia. The mills of these companies 
are located at Chatsworth, Murray Coun- 
ty, and the mines are on Fort and Co- 
hutta mountains, about three miles dis- 
tant. A considerable amount of pros- 
pecting and mining has been done on the 
Dickey property, one-half mile south of 
Mineral Bluff, Fannin County. Talc has 
also been mined to a limited extent near 
Ball Ground and Holly Springs, Cherokee 
County. Favorable prospects are known 
to occur in other counties in north Geor- 
gia. Talc is principally used for pencils, 
gas tips, paper filler, lubricants, fire- 
proof paints and toilet powders. 

References on Talc and Soapstone: 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Oeol. Survey No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

Hopkins, Oliver B., Asbestos, Talc and Soap- 
stone Deposits of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Sur- 
vey No. 29, 1914, 319 pp. 

TRIPOLI 

A light, porous, siliceous stone, locally 
known as tripoli, occurs in Murray, Whit- 
field, Chattooga and other counties in 
northwest Georgia. One of the best 
known deposits in Murray County is on 



42 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

the Tilton property, near Spring Place. 
There are several localities in Whitfield 
County where it is known to occur. It 
has been rather extensively worked near 
Dalton and Lyerly. Tripoli mined in 
Georgia is said to be used largely in the 
manufacture of scouring soaps and polish- 
ing powders. 

Reference on Tripoli: 

McCallio, S. W., Mineral Resources of Geor- 
gia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survcv No. 23, 1910, 
208 pp. 

MINERAL WATERS 

Mineral springs of greater or less im- 
portance are widely distributed through- 
out the State. They are abundant in the 
Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Val- 
ley, where one or more having a local 
reputation are met with in nearly every 
county. These springs are especially 
abundant in the mountainous regions of 
the Piedmont area, where many of them 
have become sites of prominent summer 
resorts. 

References on Mineral Waters: 

McCallie, S. W., Underground Waters of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 15, 1908, 
376 pp. 

McCallie, S. W., Mineral Waters of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 20, 1913, 190 pp. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 43 
ARTESJAN WELLS 

The artesian wells of Georgia are prac- 
tically all confined to the Coastal Plain, 
which is the only part of the State where 
the geological conditions are favorable 
for artesian water supply in large quan- 
tities. A considerable number of deep, 
non-flowing wells are also found in the 
Crystalline and Paleozoic areas, but as a 
general rule these wells furnish only a 
limited amount of water and they can not 
always be relied upon for a continuous 
supply, as they are often affected by long 
drouths. 

References on Artesian Wells: 

McCallie, S. W., Artesian Wells of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 7, 1898, 214 pp. 

- Underground Waters of Georgia : 
Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 15, 1908, 376 pp. 

WATER POWERS 

It is estimated that the streams of 
Georgia at low water will furnish an ag- 
gregate of 500,000 horse-power, only a 
small part of which is now developed. 
The money value of this power, reckon- 
ing a horse-power at $20.00 per annum, 
is $10,000,000, which is nearly twice the 
State's annual income from taxes and 
all other sources. By the use of storage 
dams, or by the use of auxiliary steam 
power for short periods during the dry 



44 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

season, fully 1,000,000 horse-power, 
low estimate, could be utilized. 

References on Water 'Powers: 

Anderson, C. C., and Hall, B. M., Water 
Powers of Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey 
No. 3-A, 1896, 150 pp. 

Hall, B. M. and M. R., Water Powers of 
Georgia : Bull. Ga. Geol. Survey No. 16, 1908, 
424 pp. 

Hall, B. M. and M. R., Third Report on the 
Water Powers of Georgia. In preparation. 




TALLULAH FALLS POWER PLANT (102,000 
H. P.). HABERSHAM COUNTY. 



MINERAL RESOURCES or GEORGIA. 45 



BULLETINS OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
OF GEORGIA 

1. Marbles of Georgia, by S. W. McCallie, 
1894, 87 pp., 16 pi., and 2 maps. Out 
of print. 

1. Marbles of Georgia, Second Edition, Re- 

vised and Enlarged, by S. W. McCallie, 
1907, 126 pp., 52 pi., and 2 maps. 
Postage, 13 cents. 

2. Corundum Deposits of Georgia, by Francis 

P. King, 1894, 133 pp., 6 pi., 1 map. 
Postage, 9 cents. 

3. A Part of the Water-Powers of Georgia, 

by C. C. Anderson and B. M. Hall, 1896, 
150 pp., 10 pi., and 2 maps. Postage, 
9 cents. 

4. A Part of the Gold Deposits of Georgia, 

by W. S. Yeates, S. W. McCallie and 
Francis P. King, 1896, 542 pp., 21 pi., 
and 1 map. Out of print. 

5. A Part of the Phosphate and Marls of 

Georgia, by S. W. McCallie, 1896, 98 
pp., 3 pi. Out of print. 

6. A Part of the Clays of Georgia, by Geo. 

E. Ladd, 1898, 204 pp., 17 pi. Postage, 
11 cents. 

7. Artesian-Well System of Georgia, by S. 

W. McCallie, 1898, 214 pp., 7 pi., and 2 
maps. Postage, 13 cents. 

8. Roads and Road-Building Materials of 

Georgia, by S. W. McCallie, 1901, 264 
pp., 27 pi., and 1 map. Postage, Ify 
cents. 



46 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

9. A Part of the Granites and Gneisses of 
Georgia, by Thomas L. Watson, 1902, 
367 pp., 32 pi., and 4 maps. Postage, 
21 cents. 

10. Iron Ores of Polk, Bartow and Floyd 

counties, Georgia, by S. W. McCallie, 
1900, 190 pp.. 8 pi., 1 map. Postage, 
11 cents. 

11. Bauxite Deposits of Georgia, by Thos. L. 

Watson, 1904, 169 pp., 12 pi., and 1 
map. Postage, 10 cents. 

12. Coal Deposits of Georgia, by S. W. Mc- 

Callie, 1904, 121 pp., 14 pi., and 1 map. 
Postage, 9 cents. 

13. Ocher Deposits of Georgia, by Thos. L. 

Watson, 1906, 81 pp., 11 pi., and 3 
maps. Postage, 6 cents. 

14. Manganese Deposits of Georgia, by 

Thomas L. Watson, 1908, 195 pp., 8 pi., 
and 2 maps. Postage, 12 cents. 

15. Underground Waters of Georgia, by S. W. 

McCallie, 1908, 376 pp., 29 pi., and 2 
maps. Postage, 20 cents. 

16. Water-Powers of Georgia, by B. M. and 

M. R. Hall 1908, 424 pp., 14 pi., and 1 
map. Postage, 21 cents. 

17. Fossil Iron Ore Deposits of Georgia, by 

S. W. McCallie, 1908, 199 pp., 24 pi., 
and 3 maps. Postage, Ik cents. 

18. Clay Deposits of Georgia, by Otto Veatch, 

1909, 453 pp., 32 pi., and 3 maps. 
Postage, 25 cents. 

19. Gold Deposits of Georgia, by S. P. Jones, 

1909, 283 pp., 8 pi., and 2 maps. Post- 
age, 16 cents. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF GEORGIA. 47 

20. Mineral Waters of Georgia, by S. W. Mc- 

Callie, 1913T 190 pp., 24 pi., and 1 map. 
Postage, 11 cents. 

21. Limestones and Marls of the Coastal Plain 

of Georgia, by J. E. Brantly, 1916, 360 
pp., 11 pi., and 1 map. Postage, 18 
cents. 

22. Brown Iron Ores of Georgia, by S. W. 

McCallie. In preparation. 

23. Mineral Resources of Georgia, by S. W. 

McCallie, 1910, 208 pp., 20 pi., and 2 
maps. Postage, IJj cents. 

24. Public Roads of Georgia, Second Report, 

by S. W. McCallie, 1910, 36 pages. 
Postage, 5 cents. 

25. Drainage Investigations in Georgia, by 

S. W. McCallie, and U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, 1911, 123 pp., 7 pi., and 
5 maps. Postage, 12 cents. 

26. Geology of the Coastal Plain of Georgia, 

by Otto Veatch and L. M. Stephenson, 

1911, 463 pp., 30 pi., and 2 maps. 
Postage, 21 cents. 

27. Limestones and Cement Materials of 

North Georgia, by T. Poole Maynard, 

1912, 296 pp., 22 pi., and 1 map. Post- 
age, 18 cents. 

28. Public Roads of Georgia, by S. W. Mc- 

Callie, 1912, 12 pp. Postage, 5 cents. 

29. Asbestos, Talc and Soapstone Deposits of 

Georgia, by Oliver B. Hopkins, 1914, 
319 pp., 21 pi., and 1 map. Postage, 11 
cents. 

30. Feldspar and Mica Deposits of Georgia, by 

S. L. Galpin, 1915, 192 pp., 9 pi., and 
1 map. Postage, 16 cents. 



48 GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GEORGIA. 

31. Bauxite and Fullers Earth of tlie Coastal 

Plain of Georgia, by H. K. Shearer, 
1917, 340 pp., 16 pi., and 1 map. Post- 
age, 21 cents. 

32. Agricultural Drainage in Georgia, by H. H. 

Barrows, J. V. Phillips, and J. E. 
Brantly, 1917, 122 pp., 9 pi., and 6 maps. 
Postage, 12 cents. 

33. A Preliminary Report on a Part of the 

Pyrite Deposits of Georgia, by H. K. 

Shearer, and J. P. D. Hull, 1918. In 
preparation. 

34. Third Report on the Water Powers of 

Georgia, by B. M. and M. R. Hall, 1918. 
In preparation. 

35. Slate Deposits of Georgia, by H. K. 

Shearer, 1918. In preparation. 

36. Barytes Deposits of Georgia, by J. P. D. 

Hull. In preparation. 



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